We report that nanostructuring via dip-pen nanolithography can be used for modification of a broad range of different substrates (polystyrene, Teflon, stainless steel, glass, silicon, rubber, etc.) without the need for reconfiguring the underlying printing technology. This is made possible through the use of vapor-based coatings that can be deposited on these substrates with excellent conformity, while providing functional groups for subsequent spatially directed click chemistry via dip-pen nanolithography. Pattern quality has been compared on six different substrates demonstrating that this approach indeed results in a surface modification protocol with potential use for a wide range of biotechnological applications.
Substrate-independent dip-pen nanolithography based on reactive coatings
H.-Y. Chen, M. Hirtz, X. Deng, T. Laue, H. Fuchs, J. Lahann
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132 (2010) 18023-18025