The nanoscale, multiplexed functionalization of graphene in a device array is a critical step to realize graphene-based chemical and biosensors. We demonstrate that graphene can be functionalized with submicron resolution and in well-defined locations and patterns using reaction agents in attoliter quantities, utilizing dip-pen nanolithography or microchannel cantilever spotting. Specifically, we functionalize graphene with a biotin azide using click-chemistry and demonstrate the subsequent binding of fluorescently tagged streptavidin. The technique can be scaled up to multiplex functionalize graphene devices on a wafer-scale for sensor and biomedical applications.
Attoliter Chemistry for Nanoscale Functionalization of Graphene
M. Hirtz, S. A. Varey, H. Fuchs, A. Vijayaraghavan
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8 (2016) 33371-33376