We report on a novel approach to realize on-chip microlasers, by applying highly localized and material-saving surface functionalization of passive photonic whispering gallery mode microresonators. We apply dip-pen nanolithography on a true three-dimensional structure. We coat solely the light-guiding circumference of pre-fabricated poly(methyl methacrylate) resonators with a multifunctional molecular ink. The functionalization is performed in one single fabrication step and simultaneously provides optical gain as well as molecular binding selectivity. This allows for a direct and flexible realization of on-chip microlasers, which can be utilized as biosensors in optofluidic lab-on-a-chip applications. In a proof-of-concept we show how this highly localized molecule deposition suffices for low-threshold lasing in air and water, and demonstrate the capability of the ink-lasers as biosensors in a biotin–streptavidin binding experiment.
On-chip microlasers for biomolecular detection via highly localized deposition of a multifunctional phospholipid ink
U. Bog, T. Laue, T. Grossmann, T. Beck, T. Wienhold, B. Richter, M. Hirtz, H. Fuchs, H. Kalt, T. Mappes
Lab Chip 13 (2013) 2701-2707